Colon-Rectum Cancers

Colon cancer is the fourth most common cancer among all cancers. Every year, around 1 million new cases of colon cancer are diagnosed worldwide. Nowadays, an average person has a 4-5% risk of developing colon cancer during their lifetime. Because of this risk, the number of colon cancer patients is expected to increase over the years.


Cancer symptoms

Most patients who have colon polyps have no symptoms and colon polyps are signs of cancer. Weakness, fatigue, palpitations, anemia, clean blood from the rectum during defecation, mixed defecation and diarrhea rarely occur in these patients. With advanced colon cancer, obstruction, perforation, spread to other organs, swelling and pain in the abdomen, nausea, vomiting, in the colon and shortness of breath, debilitation may occur. During this time, the fight against cancer is more difficult and risky for both the patient and the doctor.

Risk factors

Dietary habits, physical activity, genetic predisposition, age and social scanning programs are the main factors that can change the risk.

Surgical treatment

The main treatment for colorectal cancer today is surgery. In the initial phase, surgery is the first choice. Surgical treatment for colon cancer depends on the location of the tumor. In cancer surgery, the tumor intestine should be removed with regional lymph nodes.

For the right colon tumor, the right side (initial part) of the colon, which is called the right colectomy, is removed and the remaining end of the small intestine is connected to the colon.

For the left colon tumor, the left side of the left colon, which is called the left colectomy, is removed and the middle colon is connected to the sigma (sigmoid colon).

With transverse colon tumors, the side of the diseased intestine (right or left) is expanded and then removed (including the transverse colon). Sometimes 70% of the colon is removed.

The sigma, which is called anterior resection in a sigma tumor, is removed with the surrounding lymph nodes. The sigma and left colon are the narrowest part of the colon, so tumors in this region can sometimes cause obstruction. In this case, the entire colectomy can be removed. Therefore, the small intestine is connected to the rectum. Sometimes, in the event of constipation, the diseased intestine is removed and an anastomosis is performed, then the colon is attached to the abdominal skin by colostomy. Another option is to connect the small intestine to the abdominal skin in the form of an ileostomy. After 2 or 3 months, this stoma is closed according to the patient’s postoperative treatment.

Laparoscopic surgery

Laparoscopy is a surgical operation with a 6-8 cm incision to remove only the tumor in the intestine. After the abdominal cavity has been inflated with carbon dioxide, the operation is carried out using special and technological surgical instruments. It is of the same quality as open surgery. With this method, the wound heals faster, the hospital stay and the beginning of everyday life are shortened. postoperative pain, incision at the site of hernia formation is less. Research has shown that laparoscopic surgery in cancer surgery delivers the same results as open surgery, contrary to the opinion that open surgery is better in the community. The operating times are longer than with open operations. For rectal cancer, the first treatment option is surgery in the first phase, radiation therapy (radiation therapy) or chemotherapy with radiation therapy in the second and third phases. Then surgical treatment is carried out. The first choice in phase 4 is chemotherapy.


What is laparoscopy colon surgery, what are the advantages?


In open colon surgery, an incision of approximately 20 to 30 cm is made in the midline of the abdomen, which depends on factors such as the position of the problem area and the weight of the patient. In laparoscopic colon surgery, four holes are drilled in the abdomen, two 0.5 cm and two 1 cm in size, and the operation is performed through these holes. At the end of the operation, depending on the size of the part to be removed, an additional incision of 4 to 5 cm is made in the abdomen. Since this method has a much smaller incision, the postoperative pain of the patient is much less, the risk of postoperative intestinal obstruction is lower, the length of hospital stay and the time in which the patient is dependent on the bed is reduced, it is possible to return to work early and there are much fewer scars. The first treatment option for colorectal cancer in the first, second and third phases is surgery. The first treatment option in the fourth phase is chemotherapy.